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DECLARE, DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE, DECLARATORY

    26.12.17  

DECLARANT. One who makes a declaration. Vide Declarationis.
DECLARATION, pleading. A declaration is a specification, in a methodical and logical form, of the circumstances which constitute the plaintiff's cause of action. 1 Chit. Pl. 248; Co. Litt. 17, a, 303, a; Bac. Abr. Pleas, B; Com. Dig. Pleader, C 7; Lawes on Pl. 35; Steph Pl. 36; 6 Serg. & Rawle, 28. In real actions, it is most properly called the count; in a personal one, the declaration. Steph. Pl. 36 Doct. Pl. 83; Lawes, Plead. 33; see P. N. B. 16, a, 60, d. The latter, however, is now the general term; being that commonly used when referring to real and personal actions without distinction. 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 2815.
2. The declaration in an action at law answers to the bill in chancery, the libel of the civilians, and the allegation of the ecclesiastical courts.
3. It may be considered with reference, 1st. To those general requisites or qualities which govern the whole declaration; and 2d. To its form, particular parts, and requisites.
4. - 1. The general requisites or quali- ties of a declaration are first, that it correspond with the process. But, according to the present practice of the courts, oyer of the writ cannot be craved; and a variance between the writ and declaration cannot be pleaded in abatement. 1 Saund. 318; a.
5. - Secondly. The second general requisite of a declaration is, that it contain a statement of all the facts necessary in point of law, to sustain the action, and no more. Co. Litt. 303, a; Plowd. 84, 122. See 2 Mass. 863; Cowp. 682; 6 East, R. 422 5 T. R. 623; Vin. Ab. Declarations.
6. - Thirdly. These circumstances must be stated with certainty and truth. The certainty necessary in a declaration is, to a certain intent in general, which should pervade the whole declaration, and is particularly required in setting forth, 1st. The parties; it must be stated with certainty who are the parties to the suit, and therefore a declaration by or against "C D and Company," not being a corporation, is insufficient. See Com. Dig. Pleader, C I 8 1 Camp. R. 446 I T. R. 508; 3 Caines, R. 170. 2d. The time; in personal actions the declaration must, in general, state a time when every material or traversable fact happened; and when a venue is necessary, time must also, be mentioned. 5 T. R. 620; Com. Dig. Plead. C 19; Plowd. 24; 14 East, R. 390.; The precise time, however, is not material; 2 Dall. 346; 3 Johns. R. 43; 13 Johns. R. 253; unless it constitutes a material part of the contract declared upon, or whlere the date, &c., of a written contract or record, is averred; 4 T. R. 590 10 Mod. 313 2 Camp. R. 307, 8, n.; or, in ejectment, in which the demise must be stated to have been made after the title of the lessor of the plaintiff, and his right of entry, accrued. 2 East, R. 257; 1 Johns. Cas. 283. 3d. The Place. See Venue. 4th. Other circumstances necessary to maintain the action.
7. - 2. The parts and particular requisites of a declaration are, first, the title of the court and term. See 1 Chit. Pl. 261, et seq.
8. - Secondly. The venue. Immediately after tñhe title of the declaration follows the statement in the margin of the venue, or county in which the facts are alleged to have occurred, and in which the cause is tried. See Venue.
9. - Thirdly. The commencement. What is termed the commencement of the declaration follows the venue in the margin, and precedes the more circumstantial statement of the cause of action. It contains a statement, 1st. Of the names of the parties to the suit, and if they sue or be sued in another right, or in a political capacity, (as executors, assignees, qui lam, &c.) of the character or right in respect of which they are parties to the suit. 2d. Of the mode in which the defendant has been brought into court; and, 3d. A brief recital of the form of action to be proceeded in. 1 Saund. 318, Id. 111, 112; 6 T. R. 130.
10. Fourthly. The statement of the cause (if action, in which all the requisites of certainty before mentioned must be observed, necessarily varies, according to the circumstances of each particular case, and the form of action, whether in assumpsit, debt, covenant, detinue, case, trover, replevin or trespass.
11. Fifthly. The several counts. A declaration may consist of as many counts as the case requires, and the jury may assess entire or distinct damages on. all the counts; 3 Wils. R. 185; 2 Bay, R. 206; and it is usual, particularly in actions of assumpsit, debt on simple contract, and actions on the case, to set forth the plaintiff's cause of action in various shapes in different counts, so that if the plaintiff fail in proof of one count, he may succeed in another. 3 Bl. Com. 295.
12. - Sixthly. The conclusion. In personal and mixed actions the declaration should conclude to the damage of the plaintiff; Com. Dig. Pleader, C 84; 10 Co. 116, b. 117, a.; unless in scire facias and in penal actions at the suit of a common informer.
13. - Seventhly. The profert and pledges. In an action at the suit of an executor or administrator, immediately after the conclusion to the damages, &c., and before the pledges, a profert of the letters testamentary or letters of administration should be made. Bac. Abr. Executor, C; Dougl. 6, in notes. At the end of the declaration, it is usual to add the plaintiff is common pledges to prosecute, John Doe and Richard Roe.
14. A declaration may be general or special; for example, in debt or bond, a declaration counting on the penal part only, is general; when it sets out both the penalty and the condition, and assigns the breach, it is special. Gould on Pl. c. 4, §50. See, generally, Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t. 1 Chit. Pl. 248 to 402; Lawes, Pl. Index) h. t.; Arch. Civ. Pl. -index, h. t.; Steph. Pl. h. t.; Grab. Pr. h. t.; Com. Dig. Pleader, h. t.; Dane's Ab. h. t.; United States Dig. Pleadings ii.
DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE. This is a state paper issued by the congress of the United States of America, in the name and by the authority of the people, on the fourth day of July, 17 76, wherein are set forth:
2. - 1. Certain natural and unalienable rights of man; the uses and purposes of governments the right of the people to institute or to abolish them; the sufferings of the colonies, and their right to withdraw from the tyranny of the king of Great Britain.
3. -2. The various acts of tyranny of the British Icing.
4. - 3. The petitions for redress of these injuries, and the refusal. to redress them; the recital of an appeal to the people of "Great Britain, and of their being deaf to the voice of justice and consanguinity.
5. - 4. An appeal to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of the intentions of the representatives.
6. - 5. A declaration that the United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states; that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British crown, and that all political connexion between them and the state of Great Britain, is and ought to be dissolved.
7. - 6. A pledge by the representatives to each other, of their lives, their fortunes, and their sacred honor.
8. The effect of this declaration was the establishment of the government of the United States as free and independent) and thenceforth the people of Great Britain have been held, as the rest of mankind, enemies in war, in peace friends.
DECLARATION OF lNTENTION. The act of an alien, who goes before a court of record, and in a forma manner declares that it is, bona fide, his intention to become a citizen of the United States, and to renounce forever all allegiance and fidelity to any foreign prince, potentate, state, or sovereignty, whereof he may at the time be a citizen or subject. Act of Congress of April 14, 18O2, s. 1.
2. This declaration must, in usual cases, be made at least three years before his admission. Id. But there are numerous exceptions to this rule. See Naturalization.
DECLARATION OF TRUST. The act by which an individual acknowledges that a property, the title of which he holds, does in fact belong to another, for whose use he holds the same. The instrument in which the acknowledgment is made, is also called a declaration of trust; but such a declaration is not always in writing, though it is highly proper it should be so. Will. on Trust, 49, note y; Sudg. on Pow. 200. See Merl. Rep. Declaration au profit d'un tiers.
DECLARATION OF WAR. An act of the national legislature, in which a state of war is declared to exist between the United States and some other nation.
2. This power is vested in congress by the constitution, art. 1, s. 8. There is no form or ceremony necessary, except the passage of the act. A manifesto, stating the causes of the war, is usually publishied, but war exists as soon as the act takes effect. It was formerly usual to precede hostilities by a public declaration communicated to the enemy, and to send a herald to demand satisfaction. Potter, Antiquities of Greece, b. 3, c. 7; Dig. 49, 15, 24. But that is not the practice of modern times. In some countries, as England, the, power of declaring war is vested in the king, but he has no power to raise men or money to carry it on, which renders the right almost nugatory.
4. The public proclamation of the government of a state, by which it declares itself to be at war with a foreign power, which is named, and which forbids all and every one to aid or assist the common enemy, is also called a declaration of war.
DECLARATIONS, evidence. The statements made by the parties to a transaction, in relation to the same.
2. These declarations when proved are received in evidence, for the purpose of illustrating the peculiar character and circumstances of the transaction. Declarations are admitted to be proved in a variety of cases.
3. - 1. In cases of rape, the fact that the woman made declarations in relation to it, soon after the assault took place, is evidence; but the particulars of what she said cannot be heard. 2 Stark; N. P. C. 242; S. C. 3 E. C. L. R. 344. But it is to be observed that these declarations can be used only to corroborate her testimony, and cannot be received as independent evidence; where, therefore, the prosecutrix, died, these declarations could not be received. 9 C. & P. 420; S. C. 38 Eng. C. L. R. 173; 9 C. & P. 471; S. C. 38 E. C. L. It. 188.
4. - 2. When more than one person is concerned in the commission of a crime, as in cases of riots, conspiracies, and the like, the declarations of either of the parties, made while acting in the common design, are evidence against the whole; but the declarations of one of the rioters or conspirators, made after the accomplishment of their object, and when they no longer acted together, are evidence only against the party making them. 2 Stark. Ev. 235 2 Russ. on Cr. 572 Rosc. Cr. Ev. 324; 1 Breese, Rep. 269.
5. In. civil cases the declarations of an agent, made while acting for his principal, are admitted in evidence as explanatory of his acts; but his confessions after he has ceased to, act, are not evidence. 4. S. R. 321.
6. - 3. To prove a pedigree, the declarations of a deceased member of the family are admissible. Vide Hearsay, and the cases there cited.
7. - 4. The dying declarations of a man who has received a mortal injury, as to the fact itself, and the party by whom it was committed, are good evidence; but the party making them must be under a full consciousness of approaching death. The declarations of a boy between ten and eleven years of age, made under a consciousness of approaching death, were received in evidence on the trial of a person for killing him, as being declarations in articulo mortis. 9 C. & P. 395; S. C. 38 E. C. L. R. 168. Evidence of such declarations is admissible only when the death of the deceased is the subject of the charge, and the circumstances of the death the subject of the dying declarations. 2 B. & C. 605; S. C. 9 E. C. L. R. 196; 2 B. & C. 608; S. C. 9 E. C. L. R. 198; 1 John. Rep. 159; 15 John. R. 286; 7 John. R. 95 But see contra, 2 Car. Law Repos. 102. Vide Death bed, or Dying declarations. 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 3071.
DECLARATORY. Something which explains, or ascertains what before was uncertain or doubtful; as a declaratory statute, which is one passed to put an end to a doubt as to what the law is, and which declares what it is, and what it has been. 1 Bl. Com. 86.
TO DECLARE. To make known or publish. By tho constitution of the United States, congress have power to declare war. In this sense the word, declare, signifies, not merely to make it known that war exists, but also to make war and to carry it on. 4 Dall. 37; 1 Story, Const. §428; Rawle on the Const. 109. In pleading, to declare, is the act of filing a declaration.

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