**MEASURE.**That which is used as a rule to determine a quantity. A certain quantity of something, taken for a unit, and which expresses a relation with other quantities of the same thing.

2.
The constitution of the United States gives power to congress to " fix
the standard of weights and measures." Art. 1, B. 8. Hitherto this has
remained as a dormant power, though frequently brought before the
attention of congress.

3.
The states, it seems, possess the power to legislate on this subject,
or, at least, the existing standards at the adoption of the constitution
remain in full force. 3 Sto. Const. 21; Rawle on the Const. 102.

4.
By a resolution of congress, of the 14th of June, 1836, the secretary
of the treasury is directed to cause a complete set of all weights and
measures adopted as standards, and now either made or in the progress of
manufacture, for the use of the several custom-houses and for other
purposes, to be delivered to the governor of each state in the Union, or
to such person as he may appoint, for the use of the states
respectively, to the end that an uniform standard of weights and
measures may be established throughout the United States.

5.
Measures are either, 1. Of length. 2. Of surface. 3. Of solidity or
capacity. 4. Of force or gravity, or what is commonly called weight. (q.
v.) 5. Of angles. 6. Of time. The measures now used in the United
States, are the same as those of England, and are as follows

1. MEASURES OF LENGTH.

12 inches = l foot

3 feet = l yard

51/2 yards = l rod or pole

40 poles = 1 furlong

8 furlongs = l mile

69 1/15 miles = l degree of a great circle

of the earth.

An
inch is the smallest lineal measure to which a name is given, but
subdivisions are used for many purposes. Among mechanics, the inch is
commonly divided into eighths. By the officers of the revenue and by
scientific persons, it is divided into tenths, hundredths, &c.
Formerly it was made to consist of twelve parts called lines, but these
have fallen into disuse.

Particular measures of length.

1st. Used for measuring cloth of all kinds.

1 nail = 2 1/4 inches

1 quarter = 4 inches

1 yard = 4 quarters

1 ell = 5 quarters. 2d. used for the height of horses.

1 hand = 4 inches. 3d. Used in measuring depths.

1 fathom = 6 feet.

4th. Used in land measure, to facilitate computation of the contents, 10 square chains being equal to an acre.

1 link = 7 92/100 inches

1 chain = 100 links. 6.-2. MEASURES OF SURFACE.144 square inches = l square foot

9 square feet = l square yard

30 1/4 square yards = l perch or rod

40 perches = l rood

4 roods or 160 perches = l acre

640 acres--l square mile. 7. - 3. MEASURES OF SOLTDITY AND CAPACITY.1st. Measures of solidity.1728 cubic inches = l cubic foot

27 cubic feet = l cubic yard.

2d. Measures of capacity for all liquids, and for all goods, not liquid, except such as are comprised in the next division.

4 gills = l pint = 34 2/3 cubic inches nearly.

2 pints = l quart = 691/2 " "

4 quarts = 1 gallon = 277 1/4 " "

2 gallons = l peck = 554 1/2 " "

8 gallons= 1 bushel = 2218 1/2 " "

8 bushels = l quarter = 10 1/4 cubic feet "

5 quarters = l load = 51 1/2 " "

The
last four denominations are used only for goods, not liquids. For
liquids, several denominations have heretofore been adopted, namely, for
beer, the firkin of 9 gallons, the kilderkin of 18 , the barrel of 36,
the hogshead of 54; and the butt of 108 gallons. For wine or spirits
there are the anker, runlet, tierce, hogshead, puncheon, pipe, butt, and
tun; these are, however, rather the names of the casks, in which the
commodities are imported, than as express any definite number of
gallons. It is the practice to gauge all such vessels, and to charge
them according to their actual contents.

3d. Measures of capacity, for coal, lime, potatoes, fruit, and other commodities, sold by heaped measure.

2 gallons = 1 peck-704 cubic in. nearly.

8 gallons = 1 bushel=28151/2 " "

3 bushels = 1 sack = 41 cubic feet "

12 sacks=l chaldron = 58 2/3 " "8.-4. MEASURES OF WEIGHTS. See art. Weights.9.-5., ANGULAR MEASURE; or, DIVISION OF THE CIRCLE.

60 seconds = l minute

60 minutes = l degree

30 degrees = 1 sign

90 degrees = 1 quadrant

360 degrees, or 12 signs = 1 circumference.

Formerly
the subdivisions were carried on by sities; thus, the second was
divided into 60 thirds, the third into sixty fourths, &c. At
present, the second is more generally divided decimally into tens,
hundreds, &c. The degree is frequently so divided.

or
10. - 6. MEASURE OF TIME.60 seconds = 1 minute 60 minutes = 1 hour 24
hours = l day 7 days = 1 week 28 days, or 4 weeks = 1 lunar month 28,
29, 30, or 31 days = 1 calendar month 12 calendar months = 1 year 365
days = 1 common year 366 day = l leap year. The second of time is
subdivided like that of angular measure.

FRENCH MEASURES.

11.
As the French system of weights and measures is the most scientific
plan known, and as the commercial connexions of the United States with
France are daily increasing, it has been thought proper here to give a
short account of that system.

12.
The fundamental, invariable, and standard measure, by which all weights
and measures are formed, is called the metre, a word derived from the
Greek , which signifies measure. It is a lineal measure, and is equal to
3 feet, 0 inches, 44/1000, Paris measure, or 3 feet, 3 inches, 370/1000
English. This unit is divided into ten parts; each tenth, into ten
hundreths; each hundreth, into ten thousandths, &c. These divisions,
as well as those of all other mea- sures, are infinite. As the standard
is to be invariable, something has been sought, from which to make it,
which is not variable or subject to any change. The fundamental base of
the metre is the quarter of the terrestrial meridian, or the distance
from the pole to the equator, which has been divided into ten millions
of equal parts, one of which is the length of the metre. All the other
measures are formed from the metre, as follows:

2. MEASURE OF CAPACITY

13.
The litre. This is the decimetre; or one-tenth part of the cubic metre;
that is, if a vase is made of a cubic form, of a decimetre every way,
it would be of the capacity of a litre. This is divided by tenths, as
the metre. The measures which amount. to more than a single, litre, are
counted by tens hundreds, thousands, &c., of litres.

3. MEASURES OF WEIGHTS.

14.
The gramme. This is the weight of a cubic centimetre of distilled
water, at the temperature of zero; that is, if a vase be made of a cubic
form, of a hundredth part of a metre every way, and it be filled with
distilled water, the weight of that water will be that of the gramme.

4. MEASURES OF SURFACES.

15.
The arc, used in surveying. This is a square, the sides of which are of
the length of ten metres, or what is equal to one hundred square
metres. Its divisions are the same as in the preceding measures.

5. MEASURES OF SOLIDITY.

16.
The stere, used in measuring firewood. It is a cubic metre. Its
subdivisions are similar to the preceding. The term is used only for
measuring fire-wood. For the measure of other things, the term cube
metre, or cubic metre is used, or the tenth, hundredth, &c., of such
a cube.

6. MONEY.

17.
The franc. It weighs five grammes. it is made of nine-tenths of silver,
and one-tenth of copper. Its tenth part is called a decime, and its
hundredth part a centime.

18.
One measure being thus made the standard of all the rest, they must be
all equally invariable; but, in order to make this certainty perfectly
sure, the following precautions have been adopted. As the temperature
was found to have an influence on bodies, the term zero, or melting ice,
has been selected in making the models or standard of the metre.
Distilled water has been chosen to make the standard of the gramme, as
being purer, and less encumbered with foreign matter than common water.
The temperature having also an influence on a determinate volume of
water, that with which the experiments were made, was of the temperature
of zero, or melting ice. The air, more or less charged with humidity,
causes the weight of bodies to vary, the models which represent the
weight of the gramme, have, therefore, been taken in a vacuum.

19.
It has already been stated, that the divisions of these measures are
all uniform, namely by tens, or decimal fractions, they may therefore be
written as such. Instead of writing,

1 metre and 1 tenth of a metre, we may write, 1 m. 1.

2 metre and 8 tenths, 2 m. 8.

10 metre and 4 hundredths, 10 m. 04.

7 litres, 1 tenth, and 2 hundredths, 7 lit. 12, &c.;

20.
Names have been given to, each of these divisions of the principal unit
but these names always indicate the value of the fraction, and the unit
from which it is derived. To the name of the unit have been prefixed
the particles deci, for tenth, centi, for hundredth, and milli, for
thousandth. They are thus expressed, a decimetre, a decilitre, a
decigramme, a decistere, a deciare, a centimetre, a centilitre, a
centigramme, &c. The facility with which the divisions of the unit
are reduced to the same expression, is very apparent; this cannot be
done with any other kind of measures.

21.
As it may sometimes be necessary to express great quantities of units,
collections have been made of them in tens, hundreds, thousands, tens of
thousands, &c., to which names, derived from the Greek, have been
given; namely, deca, for tens hecto, for hundreds; kilo, for thousands
and myria, for tens of thousands; they are thus expressed; a decametre, a
decalitre, &c.; a hectometre, a hectogramme, &c.; a kilometre, a
kilogramme, &c.

22. The following table will facilitate the reduction of these weights and measures into our own.

The Metre, is 3.28 feet, or 39.871 in.

Are, is 1076.441 square feet.

Litre, is 61.028 cubic inch

Stere, is 35.317 cubic feet.

Gramme, is 15.4441 grains troy, or 5.6481 drams, averdupois.

**MEASURE OF DAMAGES,**prac. Those principles or rules of law which control a jury in adjusting or proportioning the damages, in certain cases. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 636.

## No comments:

Write comments