20191227

TRESPASS, TRESPASSER...

    27.12.19  



TRESPASS, remedies. The name of an action, instituted for the recovery of damages, for a wrong committed against the plaintiff, with immediate force; as an assault and battery against the person; an unlawful entry into his, land, and an unlawful injury with direct force to his personal property. It does not lie for a mere non-feasance, nor when the matter affected was not tangible.

2. The subject will be considered with regard, 1. To the injuries for which trespass may be sustained. 2. The declaration. 3. The plea. 4. The judgment.

3. - §1. This part of the subject will be considered with reference to injuries, 1. The person. 2. To personal property. 3. To real property. 4. When trespass can or cannot be justified by legal proceedings.

4. - 1. Trespass is the proper remedy for an assault and battery, wounding, imprisonment, and the like, and it also lies for an injury to the relative rights when occasioned by force; as, for beating, wounding, and imprisoning a wife or servant, by which the plaintiff has sustained a loss. 9 Co. 113; 10 Co. 130. Vide Parties to actions; Per guod, and 1 Chit. Pr. 37.

5. - 2. The action of trespass is the proper remedy for injuries to personal property, which may be committed by the several acts of unlawfully striking, chasing, if alive, and carrying away to the damage of the plaintiff, a personal chattel, 1 Saund. 84, n. 2, 3; F. N. B. 86; Bro. Trespass, pl. 407; Toll. Executors, 112; Cro. Jac. 362, of which another is the owner and in possession; but a naked possession or right to immediate possession, is a sufficient title to support this action. 1 T. R. 480; and gee 8. John. R. 432; 7 John. R. 535; 11 John. R. 377; Cro. Jac. 46; 1 Chit. Pl. 165.

6. - 3. Trespass is the proper remedy for the several acts of breaking through an enclosure, and coming into contact with any corporeal hereditament, of which another is the owner and in possession, and by which a damage has ensued. There is an ideal fence, reaching in extent upwards, a superficie terrae usque ad caelum, which encircles every man's possessions, when he is owner of the surface, and downwards as far as his property descends; the entry, therefore, is breaking through this enclosure, and this generally constitutes, by itself, a right of action. The plaintiff must be the owner, and in possession. 5 East, R. 485; 9 John. R. 61; 12 John. R. 183; 11 John. R. 385; Id. 140; 3 Hill, R. 26. There must have been some injury, however, to entitle the plaintiff to recover, for a man in a balloon may legally be said to break the close of the plaintiff, when passing over it, as he is wafted by the wind, yet as the owner's possession is not by that act incommoded, trespass could not probably be maintained; yet, if any part of the machinery were to fall upon the land, the aeronaut could not justify an entry into it to remove it, which proves that the act is not justifiable. 19 John. 381 But the slightest injury, as treading down the grass, is sufficient. Vide 1 Chit. Pl. 173; 2 John, R. 357: 9 John. R. 113, 377; 2 Mass. R. 127; 4 Mass. R. 266; 4 John. R . 150.

7. - 4. It is a general rule that when the defendant has acted under regular process of a court of competent jurisdiction, or of a single magistrate having jurisdiction of the subject-matter, it is a sufficient justification to him; but when the court has no jurisdiction and the process is wholly void, the defendant cannot justify under it.

8. But there are some cases, where an officer will not be justified by the warrant or authority of a court, having jurisdiction. These exceptions are generally founded on some matter of public policy or convenience; for example, when a warrant was issued against a mail carrier, though the officer was justified in serving the warrant, he was liable to an indictment for detaining such mail carrier under the warrant, for by thus detaining him, he was guilty of "wilfully obstructing or retarding the passage of the mail, or of the driver or carrier," contrary to the provisions of the act of congress of 1825, ch. 275, s. 9. 8 Law Rep. 77. See Ambassador; Justification.

9. - §2. The declaration should contain a concise statement of the injury complained of, whether to the person, personal or real property, and it must allege that the injury was conimitted vi et armis and contra pacem; in which particulars it differs from a declaration in case. See Case, remedies.

10. - §3. The general issue is not guilty. But as but few matters can be given in evidence under this plea, it is proper to plead special matters of defence.

11. - §4. The judgment is generally for the damages assessed by the jury, and for costs. When the judgment is for the defendant, it is that be recover his costs. Vide Irregularity; Regular and Irregular process. Vide, generally, Bro. Ab. h. t.; Nelson's Ab. h. t.; Bac. Ab. h. t.; Dane's Ab. h. t.; Com. Dig. h. t.; Vin. Ab. h. t.; the various American and English Digests, h. t.; 2 Phil. Ev. 131; Ham. N. P. 33 to 265; Chit. Pr. Index, h. t.; Rose. Civ. Ev. h. t.; Stark. Ev. h. t.; Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.

TRESPASS DE BONIS ASPORTATIS, practice. The action brought by the owner of goods for unlawfully taking and carrying them away, is so called. This action will lie for taking away another's goods, even though he should return them, because by such taking he has deprived the owner of his right to enjoy them. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 3611.

TRESPASS ON THE CASE, practice. The technical name of an action, instituted for the recovery of damages caused by an injury unaccompanied with force, or where the damages sustained are only consequential. See Case, and 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 3482 to 3509.

TRESPASS QUARE CLAUSUM FREGIT, practice. This is the name of a remedy which lies to recover damages when the defendant has unlawfully and wrongfully trespassed upon the real estate of the plaintiff.

2. This action must be brought by the tenant in possession, for the injury is done to his possession. A remainder-man or reversioner cannot sustain it. 3. As the injury must be committed to the possession, one who has a mere incorporeal right cannot maintain this action. 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3600.

TRESPASS VI ET ARMIS, practice. This is the remedy brought by the plaintiff for an immediate injury committed with force. It is distinguished from an action of trespass on the case, in this, that in the latter the injury is consequential, and not committed with direct force. 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 2871, 3482; 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 8583.

TRESPASSER. One who couimits a trespass.

2. A man is a trespasser by his own direct actohen he acts without any excuse; or he may be a trespasser in the execution of a legal process in an illegal manner; 1 Chit. Pl. 183: 2 John. Cas. 27; or when the court has no juris4iction over the subject-matter when the court has jurisdiction but the proceeding is defective and void; when the process has been misapplied, as, when the defendant has taken A's goods on an execution against B; when the process has been abused 1 Chit. Pl. 183-187 in all these cases a man is a trespasser ab initio. And a person capable of giving his assent may become a trespasser, by an act subsequent to the tort. If, for example, a an take possession of land for the use of another, the latter may afterwards recognize and adopt the act; by so doing, he places himself in the situation of one who had previously commanded it, and consequently is himself a trespasser, if the other had no right to enter, nor he to command the entry. 4 Inst. 317; Ham. N. P. 215. Vide 1 Rawle's R. 121.
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