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Dictioanry: GABEL -- GUILTY

    22.2.12  

GABEL. A tax, imposition, or duty. This word is said to have the same signification that gabelle formerly had in France. Cunn. Dict. h. t. But this seems to be an error for gabelle signified in that country, previously to its revolution, a duty upon salt. Merl. Rep. h. t. Lord Coke says, that gabel or gavel, gablum, gabellum, gabelletum, galbelletum, and gavillettum signify a rent, duty, or service, yielded or done to the king or any other lord. Co. Litt. 142, a.
GAGE, contracts. Personal property placed by a debtor in possession of his creditor, as a security for his debt; a pawn. (q. v.) Hence mortgage is a dead pledge.
GAGER DEL LEY. Wager of law. (q. v.)
GAIN. The word is used as synonymous with profits. (q. v.) See Fruit.
GAINAGE, old Eng. law. It signifies the draft oxen, horses, wain, plough, and furniture for carrying on the work of tillage by the baser sort of soke men and villeins, and sometimes the land itself, or the profits raised by cultivating it. Bract. lib. 1, c. 9.
GALLON, measures. A gallon is a liquid measure, containing two hundred and thirty-one cubic inches, or four quarts.
GALLOWS. An erection on which to bang criminals condemned to death.
GAME. Birds and beasts of a wild-nature, obtained by fowling and hunting. Bac. Ab. h. t.; Animals; Ferae natural.

GANANCIAL, Spanish law. A term which in Spanish signifies nearly the same as acquets. Bienes gananciales are thus defined: " Aquellos que el marido y la muger o cualquiera de los dos adquieren o aumentan durante el matrimonio por compra o otro contrato, 6 mediante su trabajo e industria, como tambien los frutos de los bienos proprios que cada uno elevo al matrimonio, et de los que subsistiendo este adquieran para si por cualquier titulo." 1 Febr. Nov. lib. 1, tit. 2, c. 8, s. 1. This is a species of community; the property of which it is formed belongs in common to the two consorts, and, on the dissolution of the marriage, is divisible between them in equal shares. It is confined to their future acquisition durante el matrimonio, and the frutos, or rents and profits of the other property. 1 Burge on Confl. of Laws, 418, 419; Aso & Man. Inst. B. 1, t. 7, c. 5, §1.
GAOL. A prison or building designated by law or used by the sheriff, for the confinement or detention of those, whose persons are judicially ordered to be kept in custody., This word, sometimes written jail, is said to be derived from the Spanish jaula, a cage, (derived from caula,) in French geole, gaol. 1 Mann. & Gran. 222, note a. Vide 6 John. R. 22; 14 Vin. Ab. 9; Bac. Ab. h. t.; Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.; 4 Com. Dig. 619; and the articles Gaoler; Prison; Prisoner.
GAOL-DELIVERYEng. law. To insure the trial, within a certain time, of all prisoners, a patent in the nature of a letter is issued from the king to certain persons, appointing them his justices, and authorizing them to deliver his goals. Cromp. Jurisd. 125; 4 Inst. 168; 4 Bl. Com. 269; 2 Hale, P. C. 22, 32; 2 Hawk. P. C. 14, 28. In the United States, the judges of the criminal courts are required to cause the accused to be tried within the times prescribed by the local statutes, and the constitutions rcqpire a speedy trial.
GAOLER. The keeper of a gaol or prison, one who has the legal custody of the placo where prisoners are kept.
2. It is his duty to keep the prisoners in safe custody, and for this, purpose he may use all necessary force. 1 Hale, P. C. 601. But any oppression of a prisoner under a pretended necessity will be punished; for the prisoner, whether he be a debtor or a criminal, is entitled to the protection of the laws from oppression.
GARDEN. A piece of ground appropriated to raising plants and flowers.
2. A garden is a parcel of a house and passes with it. Br. Feoffm. de terre, 53; 2 Co. 32; Plowd. 171; Co. Litt. 5 b, 56 a, b. But see Moore, 24; Bac. Ab. Grants, I.
GARNISHEng. law. Money paid by a prisoner to his fellow prisoners on his entrance into prison. .
TO GARNSIH. To warn; to garnish the heir, is to warn the heir. Obsolete.
GARNISHEE, practice. A person who has money or property in his possession, belonging to a defendant, which money or property has been attached in his hands, and he has had notice of such attachment; he is so called because he has had warning or notice of the attachment.
2. From the time of the notice of the attachment, the garnishee is bound to keep the property in his hands to answer the plaintiff's claim, until the attachment is dissolved, or he is otherwise discharged. Vide Serg. on Att. 88 to 110; Com. Dig. Attachment, E.
3. There are garnishees also in the action of detinue. They are persons against whom process is awarded, at the prayer of the defendant, to warn them to come in and interplead with the plaintiff. Bro. Abr. Detinue, passim.
GARNISHMENT. A warning to any one for his appearance, in a cause in which he is not a party, for the information of the court, and explaining a cause. For example, in the practice of Pennsylvania, when an attachment issues against a debtor, in order to secure to the plaintiff a claim due by a, third person to such debtor, notice is given to such third person, which notice is a garnishment, and he is called the garnishee.
2. In detinue, the defendant cannot have a sci. fac. to garnish a third person unless he confess the possession of the chattel or thing demanded. Bro. Abr. Garnishment, 1, 5. And when the garnishee comes in, he cannot vary or depart from the allegation of the defendant in his prayer of garnishment. The plaintiff does not declare de novo against the garnishee; but the garnishee, if he appears in due time, may have oyer of the original declaration to which he pleads. See Bro. Abr. Garnishee and Garnishment, pl. 8, and this title, passim.
GAUGER. An officer appointed to examine all tuns, pipes, hogsheads, barrels, and tierces of wine, oil, and other liquids, and to give them a mark of allowance, as containing lawful measure.
GAVEL. A tax, imposition or tribute; the same as gabel. (q. v.)
GAVELKIND. Given to all the kindred, or the hold or tenure of a family, not the kind of tenure. Eng. law. A tenure or custom annexed or belonging to land in Kent, by which the lands of the father are equally divided among all his sons, or the land of the brother among all his brothers, if he have no issue of his own. Litt. s. 210.
GELD, old Eng. law. It signifies a fine or compensation for an offence; also, rent, money or tribute.
GEMOTE. An assembly. Wittena gemote, during the time of the Saxons in England, signified an assembly of wise men. The parliament.
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GENER. A son-in-law. Dig. 50, 16, 156.
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GENS. A word used by the Romans to represent race and nation. 1 Tho. Co. Litt. 259, n. 13. In the French law, it is used to signify people or nations, as Droit des Gens, the law of nations.
GENTLEMAN. In the English law, according to Sir Edward Coke, is one who bears a coat of armor. 2 Inst. 667. In the United States, this word is unknown to the law, but in many places it is applied, by courtesy, to all men. See Poth. Proc. Crim. sect. 1, App. §3.
GENTLEWOMAN. This word is unknown to the law in the United States, and is but little used. In England. it was, formerly, a good addition of the state or degree of a woman. 2 Inst. 667.
GENUS. It denotes the number of beings, or objects, which agree in certain general properties, common to them all, so that genus is, in fact, only an abstract idea, expressed by some general name or term; or rather a name or term, to signify what is called au abstract idea. Thus, goods is the generic name, and includes, generally, all personal property; but this word may be restrained, particularly in bequests to such goods as are of the same kind as those previously enumerated. Vide 3 Ves. 311 11 Ves. 657; 1 Eq. Cas. Ab. 201, pl. 14; 2 Ves. sen. 278, 280; Dig. 50, 17, 80; Id. 12, 1, 2, 3.
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GERMAN, relations, germanus. Whole or entire, as respects genealogy or descent; thus, "brother-german," denotes one who is brother both by the father and mother's side cousins-germane" those in the first and nearest degree, i. e., children of brothers or sisters. Tech. Dict.; 4 M. & C. 56.
GERONTOCOMI, civil law.. Officers appointed to manage hospitals for poor old persons. Clef des Lois Rom. mot Administrateurs.
GESTATION, med. jur. The time during which a female, who has conceived, carries the embryo or foetus in her uterus. By the common consent of mankind, the term of gestation is considered to be ten lunar months, or forty weeks, equal to nine calendar months and a week. This period has been adopted, because general observation, when it could be correctly made, has proved its correctness. Cyclop. of Pract. Med. vol. 4, p. 87, art. Succession of inheritance. But this may vary one, two, or three weeks. Co. Litt. 123 b, Harg. & Butler's, note 190*; Ryan's Med. Jurisp. 121; Coop. Med. Jur: 18; Civ. Code of Louis. art. 203-211; 1 Beck's Med. Jur. 478. See Pregnancy.
GIFT, conveyancing. A voluntary conveyance; that is, a conveyance not founded on the consideration of money or blood. The word denotes rather the motive of the conveyance; so that a feoffment or grant may be called a gift when gratuitous. A gift is of the same nature as a settlement; neither denotes a form of assurance, but the nature of the transaction. Watk. Prin. 199, by Preston. The operative words of this conveyance are do or dedi. The maker of this instrument is called the donor, and he to whom it is made, the donee. 2 B. Com. 316 Litt. 69; Touchs. ch. 11.
GIFT, contracts. The act by which the owner of a thing, voluntarily transfers the title and possession of the same, from himself to another person who accepts it, without any consideration. It differs from a grant, sale, or barter in this, that in each of these cases there must be a consideration, and a gift, as the definitionstates, must be without consideration.
2. The manner of making the gift may be in writing, or verbally, and, as far as personal chattels are concerned, they are equally binding. Perk. §57; 2 Bl. Com. 441. But real estate must be transferred by deed.
3. There must be a transfer made with an intention of passing the title, and delivering the possession of the thing given, and it must be accepted by the donee. 1 Madd. Ch. R. 176, Am. ed. p. 104; sed vide 2 Barn. & Ald. 551; Noy's Rep. 67.
4. The transfer must be without consideration, for if there be the least consideration, it will change the contract into a sale or barter, if possession be delivered; or if not, into an executory contract. 2 Bl. Com. 440.
5. Gifts are divided into gifts inter vivos, and gifts causa mortis; and also' into simple or proper gifts; that is, such as are to take immediate effect, without any condition; and qualified or improper gifts, or such as derive their force upon the happening, of some condition or contingency; as, for example, a donatio causa mortis. Vide Donatio causa mortis; Gifts inter vivos; and Vin. Ab. h. t.; Com. Dig. Biens, D 2, and Grant; Bac. Ab. Grant; 14 Vin. Ab. 19 3 M. & S. 7 5 Taunt. 212 1 Miles, R. 109.
GIFT INTER Vivos. A gift made from one or more persons, without any prospect of immediate death, to one or more others.
2. These gifts are so called to distinguish them from gifts causa-mortis, (vide Donatio causa mortise,) from which they differ essentially. 1. A gift inter vivos, when completed by delivery, passes the title to the thing so that it cannot be recovered back by the giver; the gift causa mortis is always given upon the implied condition that the giver may, at any time during his life, revoke it. 7 Taunt. 231; 3 Binn. 366. 2. A gift inter vivos may be made by the giver at any time; the donatio causa mortis must be made by the donor while in peril of death. In both cases there must be a delivery. 2 Kent's Com. 354; 1 Beav. R. 605; 1 Miles, R. 109.
GIFTOMAN, Swedish law. He who has a right to dispose of a woman in marriage.
2. This right is vested in the father, if living; if dead, in the mother. They may nominate a person in their place; but for want of such nomination, the brothers german; and for want of them, the consanguine brothers; and in default of the latter, uterine brothers have the right, but they are bound to consult the paternal or maternal grandfather. Swed- Code, tit. of Marriage.
GILL. A measure of capacity, equal to one-fourth of a pint. Vide Measure.
GIRANTEM, mer. law. An Italian word,, which signifies the drawer. It is derived from, girare, to draw, in the same manner as the English verb to murder, is transformed into murdrare in our old indictments. Hall, Mar. Loans, 183, n.
GIRTH., A girth or yard is a measure of length. The word is of Saxon origin, taken from the circumference of the human body. Girth is contracted from girdeth, and signifies as much as girdle. See Ell.
GIST, pleading. Gist of the action is the essential ground or object of it, in point of law, and without which there is no cause of action. Gould on Pl. c. 4, §12. But it is observable that the substance or gist of the action is not always the principal cause of the plaintiff Is complaint in point of fact, nor that on which he recovers all or the greatest part of his damages.
2. It frequently bappens that upon that part of his declaration which contains the substance or gist of the, action, he only recovers nominal damages, and he gets his principal satisfaction on account of matter altogether collateral thereto. A familiar instance of this is the case where a father sues the defendant for a trespass for the seduction of his daughter. The gist of the action is the trespass, and the loss of his daughter's services, but the collateral cause is the injury done to his feelings, for which the principal damages are given. In stating the substance or gist of the action, every thing must be averred which is necessary to be proved at the trial. Vide 1 Vin. Ab. 598; 2 Phil. Ev. 1, note. See Bac. Abr. Pleas, B; Doct. P. 85. See Damages, special, in pleading; 1 Vin. At. 598; 2 Phil. Ev. 1, n.
GIVER, contracts. He who makes a gift. (q. v.) By his gift, the giver always impliedly agrees with the donee that he will not revoke the gift.
GIVING IN PAYMENT. This term is used in Louisiana; it signifies that a debtor, instead of paying a debt he owes in money, satisfies his creditor by giving in payment a movable or immovable. Vide Dation en paiement.
GIVING TIME, contracts. Any agreement by which a creditor gives his debtor a delay or time in paying his debt, beyond that contained in the original agreement. When other persons are responsible to him, either as drawer, endorser, or surety, if such time be given without the consent of the latter, it discharges them from responsibility to him. 1 Gall. Rep. 32; 7 John. R. 332; 10 John. Rep. 180; Id. 587 Kirby, R. 397 3 Binn. R. 523; 2 John. Ch. R. 554; 3 Desaus. Ch. Rep. 604; 2 Desaus. Ch. R. 230, 389 2 Ves. jr. 504; 6 Ves. jr. 805 3 Atk. 91; 2 Bos. & Pull,. 62; 4 M. & S. 232; Bac. Ab. Obligations, D; 6. Dow. P. C. 238; 3 Meriv. R. 272; 5 Barn., & A. 187. Vide 1 Leigh's N . P. 31; 1 B. & P. 652; 2 B. & P. 61; 3 B. & P. 363; 8 East, R. 570; 3 Price, R. 521; 2 Campb. R. 178. 12 East,.R. 38; 5 Taunt. R. 319; S. C. 1 E. C. L. R. 119; Rosc. Civ. Ev. 171; 8 Watts, R. 448; 4 Penn. St. R. 73; 10 Paige, 76; and the article Forbearance.
2. But more delay in suing, without fraud or any agreement with the principal, is not such giving time as will discharge the surety. 1 Gallis. 32; 2 Pick. 581 3 Blackf. 93 7 John. 332. See Surety.
GLADIUS. In our old Latin authors, and in the Norman laws, this word was used to signify supreme jurisdiction, jus gladii.
GLEANING. The act of gathering such grain in a field where it grew, as may, have been left by the reapers after the sheaves were gathered.
2. There is a custom in England, it is said, by which the poor are allowed to enter and glean upon another's land after harvest without being guilty of a trespass. 3 Bl. Com. 212 . But it has been decided that the community are not entitled to claim this privilege as a right. 1 Hen. Bl. 51. In the United States, it is believed, no such right exists. This right seems to have existed in some parts of France. Merl. Rep. mot Glanage. As to whether gleaning would or would not amount to larceny, vide Woodf. Landl. & Ten. 242; 2 Russ. on Cr. 99. The Jewish law may be found in the 19th chapter of Leviticus, verses 9 and 10. See Ruth, ii. 2, 3; Isaiah, xvii. 6.
GLEBE, eccl. law. The land which belongs to a church. It is the dowry of the church. Gleba est terra qua consistit dos ecclesiae. Lind. 254; 9 Cranch, Rep. 329. In the civil law it signified the soil of an inheritance; there were serfs of the glebe, called gleboe addicti. Code, 11, 47, 7 et 21; Nov. 54, c. 1.
GLOSS. Interpretation, comment, explanation, or remark, intended to illustrate the text of an author.
GLOSSATOR. A commentator or annotator of the Roman law. One of the authors of the Gloss.
GLOUCESTER, STATUTE OF. An English statute, passed 6 Edw. I., A. D., 1278; so called, because it was passed at Gloucester. There were other statutes made atGloucester, which do not bear this name. See stat. 2 Rich. II.
GO WITHOUT DAY. These words have a technical sense. When a party is dismissed the court, he is said to go without day; that is, there is no day appointed for him to appear again.
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GOING WITNESS. One who is going out of the jurisdiction of the court, although only into a state or country under the general sovereignty; as, for example, if he is going from one to another of the United States; or, in Great Britain, from England to Scotland. 2 Dick. 454.
GOLD. A metal used in making money, or coin. It is pure when the metal is unmixed with any other. Standard gold, is gold mixed with some other metal, called alloy. Vide Money.
GOOD BEHAVIOUR. Conduct authorized by law. Surety of good behaviour may be demanded from any person who is justly suspected, upon sufficient grounds, of intending to commit a crime or misdemeanor. Surety. for good behaviour is somewhat similar to surety of the peace, but the recognizance is more easily forfeited, and it ought to be demanded with greater caution. 1 Binn. 98, n.; 2 Yeates, 437; 14 Vin. Ab. 21; Dane's Ab. Index, h. t. As to what is a breach of good behaviour, see 2 Mart. N. S. 683; Hawk. b. 1, c. 61, s. 6 Chit. Pr. 676. Vide Surdy of the peace.
GOOD AND LAWFUL MEN, probi et legales homines. The law requires that those who serve on juries shall be good. and lawful men; by which is understood those qualified to serve on juries; that is, that they be of full age, citizens, not infamous nor non compos mentis, and they must be res ident in the county where the venue is laid. Bac. Ab. Juries, A; Cro. Eliz. 654; 3 Inst. 30; 2 Rolle's R. 82; Cam. & Norw. 38.
GOOD CONSIDERATION, contracts. A good consideration is one which flows from kindred or natural love and affection alone, and is not of a pecuniary.nature. Vin. Ab. Consideration, B; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 613. Vide Consideration.
GOOD WILL. By this term is meant the benefit which arises from the establishment of particular trades or occupations. Mr. Justice Story describes a good will to be the advantage of benefit which is acquired by an establishment, beyond the mere value of the capital, stocks, funds, or property employed therein, in consequence of the general public patronage and encouragement, which it receives from constant or habitual customers, on account of its local position, or common celebrity, or reputation for skill or affluence, or punctuality, or from other accidental circumstances or necessities, or even from ancient partialities, or prejudices. Story, Partn. §99; see 17 Ves. 336; 1 Hoffm. R. 68; 16 Am. Jur. 87.
2. As between partners, it has been held that the good will of a partnership trade survives; 6 Ves. 539; but this appears to be doubtful; 16 Ves. 227; and a distinction, in this respect, has been suggested between commercial and professional partnerships; the advantages of established connexions in the latter being held to survive, unless the benefit is excluded by positive stipulation. 3 Madd. 79. As to the sale, of the good-will of a trade or business, see. 3 Meriv. 452; 1 Jac. & Walk. 689; 2 Swanst. 332; 1 Ves. & Beames, 505; 17 Ves. 346; 2 Madd. 220; Gow on Partn. 428; Collyer on Partn. 172, note; 2 B. & Adolph. 341; 4 Id. 592, 596; 1 Rose, 123; 5 Russ. 29; 2 Watts, 111; 1 Chit. Pr. 868; 1 Sim. & Stu. 74; 2 Russ. R. 170; 1 Jac. & W. 380; 1 Russ. R. 376; 1 P. & W. 184; 2 Mad. R. 198; l T. R. 118. Vide 5 Bos. & Pull. 67; 1 Bro. C. C. 160, as to the effect of a bankrupt's assignment on a good-will; and 16 Amer. Jur. 87.
GOODS, property. For some purposes this term includes money, valuable securities, and other mere personal effects. The term. goods and chattels, includes not only personal property in possession, but also choses in action. 12 Co. 1; 1 Atk. 182. The term chattels is more comprehensive than that of goods, and will include all animate as well as inanimate property, and also a chattel real, as a lease for years of house or land. Co. Litt. 118; 1 Russ. Rep. 376. The word goods simply and without qualification, will pass the whole personal estate when used in a will, including even stocks in the funds. But in general it will be limited by the context of the will. Vide 2 Supp. to Ves. jr. 289; 1 Chit. Pr. 89, 90; 1. Ves. jr. 63; Hamm. on Parties, 182; 3 Ves. 212; 1 Yeates, 101; 2 Dall. 142; Ayl. Pand. 296; Wesk. Ins. 260; 1 Rop. on Leg. 189; 1 Bro. C. C. 128; Sugd. Vend. 493, 497; and the articles Biens; Chattels; Furniture. 2. Goods are said to be of different kinds, as adventitious, such as are given or arise otherwise than by succession; dotal goods, or those which accrue from a dowry, or marriage portion; vacant goods, those which are abandoned or left at large.
GOODS SOLD AND DELIVERED. This phrase is frequently used in actions of assumpsit, and the sale and delivery of goods are the foundation of the action. When a plaintiff declares for goods sold and delivered, he is required to prove, first, the contract of sale; secondly, the delivery of the goods, or such disposition of them as will be equivalent to it; and, thirdly, their value. 11 . Shepl. 505. These will be separately considered.
2. - 1. The contract of sale may be express, as where the purchaser actually bought the goods on credit, and promised to pay for them at a future time; or implied, where from his acts the defendant manifested an intention to buy them; as, for example, when one takes goods by virtue of a sale made by a person who has no authority to sell, and the owner afterwards affirms the contract, he may maintain an action for goods sold and delivered. 12 Pick. 120. Again, ifthe goods come, to the hands of the defendant tortiously, and are converted by him to his own use, the plaintiff may waive the tort, and recover as for goods sold and delivered. 3 N. H. Rep. 384; 1 Miss. R. 430, 643; 3 Watts, 277; 5 Pick. 285; 4 Binn. 374; 2 Gill & John. 326; 3 Dana, 552; 5 Greenl. 323. 3. - 2. The delivery must be made in accordance with the terms of the sale, for if there has not been such delivery no action can be maintained. 2 Ired. R. 12; 15 Pick. 171; 3 John. 534.
4.- 3. The plaintiff must prove the value of the goods; where there is an express agreement as to their value, be established by evidence, but where there is no such express agreement, the value of the goods at the time of sale must be proved. Coxe, 261. And the purchaser of goods cannot defend, against an action for the purchase money, by showing that the property was of no value. 8 Port. 133.
5. To support an action for goods sold and delivered, it is indispensable that the goods should have been sold for money, and that the credit on which they were sold should have expired. But where the goods have been sold on a credit to be paid for by giving a note or bill, and the purchaser does not give it according to contract, although the seller cannot recover in assumpsit for goods sold and delivered till the credit has expired, yet he may proceed immediately for a breach of the agreement. 21 Wend. 175.
6. When goods have been sold to be paid for partly in money, and partly in goods to be delivered to the vendor, the plaintiff must declare specially, and he cannot recover on the common count for goods sold and delivered. 1 Chit. Pl. 339; 1 Leigh's N. P. 88; 1 H. Bl. 287; Holt, 179.
GOUT, med. jur. contracts. An inflammation of the fibrous and ligamentous parts of the joints.
2. In cases of insurance on lives, when there is warranty of health, it seems that a man subject to the gout, is a life capable of being, insured, if he has no sickness at the time to make it an unequal contract. 2 Park, Ins. 583.
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GRACE. That which a person is not entitled to by law, but which is extended to him as a favor; a pardon, for example, is an act of grace. There are-certain days allowed to a payer of a promissory note or bill of exchange, beyond the time which appears on its face, which are called days of grace. (q. v.)
GRADUS. This is a Latin word, literally signifying a step; figuratively it is used to designate a person in the ascending or descending line, in genealogy; a degree.
GRAFFER. This word is a corruption of the French word greffier, a clerk, or prothonotary. It signifies a notary or scrivener; vide stat. 5 Hen. VII 1. c. 1.
GRAFT. A figurative term in chancery practice, to designate the right of a mortgagee in premises, to which the mortgagor at the time of making the mortgage had an imperfect title, but who afterwards obtained a good title. In this case the new mortgage is considered a graft into the old stock, and, as arising in consideration of the former title. 1 Ball & Beat. 46; Id. 40; Id. 57; 1 Pow. on Mortg. 190. See 9 Mass. 34. The same principle has obtained by legislative enactment in Louisiana. If a person contracting an obligation towards another, says the Civil Code, art. 2371, grants a mortgage on property of which he is not then the owner, this mortgage shall be valid, if the debtor should ever acquire the ownership of, the property, by whatever right.
GRAIN, weight. The twenty-fourth part of a pennyweight.
2. For scientific purposes the grain only is used, and sets of weights are constructed in decimal progression, from 10,000 grains downward to one hundredth of a grain.
GRAIN, corn. It signifies wheat, rye, barley, or other corn sown in the ground In Pennsylvania, a tenant for a certain term is entitled to the way-going crop. 5 inn. 289, 258; 2 Binn. 487; 2 Serg. & Rawle, 14.
GRAINAGE, Eng. law. The name of an ancient duty collected in London, consisting of one-twentieth part of the salt imported into that city.
GRAMME. A French weight. The gramme is the weight of a cubic centimetre of distilled water, at the temperature of zero. It is equal to 15.4441 grains troy, or 5.6481 drachms avoirdupois. Vide. Measure.

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GRASSHEARTH, old Engl. law. The name of an ancient customary service of tenants doing one day's work for their landlord.
GRATIFICATION. A reward given voluntarily for some service or benefit rendered, without being requested so to do, either expressly or by implication.
GRATIS. Without reward or consideration.
2. When a bailee undertakes to perform some act or work gratis, he is answerable for his gross negligence, if any loss should be sustained in consequence of it; but a distinction exists between non-feasance and misfeasance; between a total omission to do an act which one gratuitously promises to do, and a culpable negligence in the execution of it; in the latter case he is responsible, while in the former he would not, in general, be bound to perform his contract. 4 Johns. R. 84; 5 T. 143; 2 Ld. Raym. 913.
GRATIS DICTUM. Assaying not required; a statement voluntarily made without necessity.
GRATUITOUS CONTRACT, civ. law. One, the object of which is for the benefit of the person with whom it is made, without any profit, received or promised, as a consideration for it as, for example, a gift. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 709.
GRAVAMEN. The grievance complained of; the substantial cause, of the action. See Greenl. Ev. §66.
GRAVE. A place where a dead body is interred.
2. The violation of the grave, by taking up the dead body, or stealing the coffin or grave clothes, is a misdemeanor at common law. 1 Russ. on. Cr. 414. A singular case, illustrative of this subject, occurred in Louisiana. A son, who inherited a large estate from his mother, buried her with all her jewels, worth $2000; he then made a sale of all he inherited from his mother, for $30,000. After this, a thief broke the grave and stole the jewels, which, after his conviction, were left with the clerk of the court, to be delivered to the owner. The son claimed them, and so did the purchaser of the inheritance; it was held that the jewels, although buried with the mother, belonged to the son, and, that they passed to the purchaser by a sale of the whole inheritance. 6 Robins. L. R. 488. See Dead Body.
3. In New York, by statutory enactment, it is provided, that every person who shall open a grave, or other place of interment, with intent, 1. To remove the dead body of any human being, for the purpose of selling the same, or for the purpose of dissection; or, 2. To steal the coffin, or any part thereof, or the vestments or other articles interred with any dead body, shall, upon conviction, be punished by imprisonment, in a state prison, not exceeding two years, or in a county gaol, not exceeding six months, or by fine not, exceeding two hundred and fifty dollars, or by both such fine and imprisonment. Rev. Stat. part 4, tit. 5, art. 3, §15.
GREAT CATTLE. By this, term, in the English law, is, meant all manner of beasts except sheep and yearlings. 2 Rolle's Rep. 173.
GREAT CHARTER. The name of the charter granted by the English King John, securing to the English people their principal liberties; magna charta. (q. v.)
GREAT LAW. The name of an act of the legislature of Pennsylvania, passed at Chester, immediately after the arrival of William Penn, December 7th, 1682. Serg. Land Laws of Penn. 24, 230.
GREE, obsolete. It signified satisfaction; as, to make gree to the parties, is, to agree with, or satisfy them for, an offence done.
GREEN WAXEng. law. The name of the estreats of fines, issues, and amerce ments in the exchequer, delivered to the sheriff under the seal of that court, which is made with green wax.
GROS BOIS, or GROSSE BOIS. Such wood as, by the common law or custom, is reputed timber. 2 hist. 642.
GROSS. Absolute; entire, not depending on another. Vide Common.
GROSS ADVENTURE. By this term the French lay writers signify a maritime loan, or bottomry. (q, v.) It is so called because the lender exposes his money to the perils of the sea; and contributes to the gross or general average. Poth. h. t.; Pard. Dr. Com . h. t.
GROSS AVERAGE, mar. law. That kind of average which falls on the ship, cargo, and freight, and. is distinguished from particular average. See Average.
GROSS NEGLIGENCE. Lata culpa, or, as the Roman lawyers most accurately call it) dolo proxima, is, in practice, considered as equivalent to dolus or fraud itself, and consists, according to the best interpreters, in the omission of that care which even inattentive and thoughtless men never fail to take of their own property. Jones on Bailments, 20. It must not be confounded, however, with fraud, for it may exist consistently with good faith and honesty of intention, according to common law authorities.
GROSS WEIGHT. The total weight of goods or merchandise, with the chests, bags, and the like, from which. are to be deducted tare and tret.
GROUND RENT, estates. In Pennsylvania, this term is used to signify a perpetual rent issuing out of some real estate. This rent is redeemable where there is a covenant in the deed that, before the expiration of a period therein named, it may be redeemed by the payment of a certain sum of money; or it is irredeemable, when there is no such agreement; and, in the latter case, it cannot be redeemed without the consent of both parties. See 1 Whart. R. 837; 4 Watts, R. 98; Cro. Jac. 510; 6 Halst. 262; 7 Wend. 463; 7 Pet. 596; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1659, and note, and Emphyteosis.
GROUNDAGE, mar. law. The consideration paid for standing a ship in a port. Jacobs, Dict. h. t., Vide Demurrage.
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GUARDIANS, domestic relations. Guardians are divided into, guardians of the person, in the civil law called tutors; and guardians of the estate, in the sam law are known by the name of curators. For the distinction between them, vide article Curatorship; 2 Kent, Com. 186 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 336, et. seq.
2. - 1. A guardian of the person is one who has been lawfully invested with the care of the person of an infant, whose father is dead.
3. The guardian must be properly appointed he must be capable of serving; he must be appointed guardian of an infant; and after his appointment he must perform the duties imposed on him by his office.
4. - 1st. In England, and in some of the states where the English law has been adopted in this respect, as in Pennsylvania; Rob. Dig. 312, by Stat. 12 Car. If. c. 24; power is given to the father to appoint a testamentary guardian for his children, whether born or unborn. According to Chancellor Kent, this statute has been adopted in the state of New York, and probably throughout this country. 2 Kent, Com. 184. The statute of Connecticut, however, is an exception; there the father cannot appoint a testamentary guardian. 1 Swift's Dig. 48.
5. All other kinds of guardians, to be hereafter noticed, have been superseded in practice by guardians appointed by courts having jurisdiction of such matters. Courts of chancery, orphans courts, and courts of a similar character having jurisdiction of testamentary matters in the several states, are, generally, speaking, invested with the power of appointing guardians.
6. - 2d. The person appointed must be capable of performing the duties; an idiot, therefore, cannot be appointed guardian.
7. - 3d. The person over whom a guardian is appointed, must be an infant; for after the party has attained his full age, he is entitled to all his rights, if of sound mind, and, if not, the person appointed to take care of him is called a committee. (q. v.) No guardian of the person can be appointed over an infant whose father is alive, unless the latter be non compos mentis, in which case one may be appointed, as if the latter were dead.
8. - 4th. After his appointment, the guardian of the person is considered as standing in the place of the father, and of course the relative powers and duties of guardian and ward correspond, in a great measure, to those of parent and child; in one prominent matter they are different. The father is entitled to the services of his child, and is bound to support him; the guardian is not entitled to the ward's services, and is not bound to maintain him out of his own estate.
9. - 2. A guardian of the estate is one who has been lawfully invested with the power of taking care and managing the estate of an infant. 1 John. R. 561; 7 John. Ch. R. 150. His appointment is made in the same manner, as that of a guardian of a person. It is the duty of the guardian to take reasonable and prudent care of the estate of the ward, and manage it in the most advantageous manner; and when the guardianship shall expire, to account with the ward for the administration of the estate.
10. Guardians have also been divided into guardians by nature; guardian's by nurture; guardians in socage; testamentary guardians; statutory guardians; and guardians ad litem.
11. - 1. Guardian by nature, is the father, and, on his death, the mother; this guardianship extends only to the custody of the person; 3 Bro. C. C. 186; 1 John. Ch. R. 3; 3 Pick. R. 213; and continues till the child shall acquire the age of twenty one years. Co. Litt. 84 a.
12. - 2. Guardian by nurture, occurs only when the ifant is without any other guardian, and the right belongs exclusively to the parents, first to the father, and then to the mother. It extends only to the person, and determines, in males and females, at the age of fourteen. This species of guardianship has become obsolete.
13. - 3. Guardian in socage, has the custody of the infant's lands as well as his person. The common law gave this guardianship to the next of blood to the child to whom the inheritance could not possibly descend. This species of guardianship has become obsolete, and does not perhaps exist in this country; for the guardian must be a relation by blood who cannot possibly inherit, and such a case can rarely exist. 2 Wend. 153: 15 Wend. 631; 6 Paige, 390; 7 Cowen, 36; 5 John.66.
14. - 4. Testamentary guardians; these are appointed under the stat. 12 Car. II., above mentioned; they supersede the claims of any other guardian, and extend to the person, an real and personal estate of the child, and continue till the ward arrives at full age.
15. - 5. Guardians appointed by the courts, by virtue of statutory authority. The distinction of guardians by nature, and by socage, appear to have become obsolete, and have been essentially superseded in practice by the appointment of guardians by courts of chancery, orphans' courts, probate courts, and such other courts as have jurisdiction to, make such appointments. Testamentary guardians might, as those of this class, be considered as statutory guardians, inasmuch as their appointment is authorized by a statute.
16. - 6. Guardian ad litem, is pointed for the infant to defend him in an action brought against him. Every court, when an infant is sued in a civil action, has power to appoint a guardian ad litem when he has no guardian, for as the infant cannot appoint an attorney, he would be without assistance if such a guardian-were not appointed. The powers and duties of a guardian ad litem are confined to the defence of the suit. F. N. B. 27; Co. Litt. 88 b, note 16; Id. 135 b, note 1; see generally Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.; Coop. Inst. 445 to 455.
GUARDIANS OF THE POOR. The name given to officers whose duties are very similar to those of overseers of the poor, (q. v.) that is, generally to relieve the distresses of such poor persons who are unable to take care of themselves.
GUARDIANSHIP, persons. The power or protective authority given by law, and imposed on an individual who is free and in the enjoyment of his rights, over one whose weakness on account of his age, renders him unable to protect himself. Vide Tutor.
GUBERNATOR, civil law. A pilot or steersman of a ship. 2 Pet. Adm. Dec. Appx. lxxxiii.
GUEST. A traveller who stays at an inn or tavern-with the consent of the keeper: Bac. Ab. Inns, C 5; 8 Co. 32. And if, after having taken lodgings at an inn, he leaves his horse there, and goes elsewhere to lodge, he is still to be considered a guest. But not if he merely leaves goods for which the landlord receives no compensation. 1 Salk. 888; 2 Lord Raym. 866; Cro. Jac. 188. The length of time a man is at an inn makes no difference, whether he stays a day, or a week, or a month, or longer, so always, that, though not strictly transiens, he retains his character as a traveller. But if a person comes upon a special contract to board and sojourn at an inn, he is not in the sense of the law a guest, but a boarder. Bac. Ab. Inns, C. 5; Story, Bailm. §477.
2. Inkeepers are generally liable for all goods belonging to the guest, brought within the inn. It is not necessary that the goods should have been in the special keeping of the innkeeper to make him liable. This rule is founded on principles of public utility, to which all private considerations ought to yield. 2 Kent, Com. 459; 1 Hayw. N. C. Rep. 40; 14 John. R. 175; Dig. 4, 9, 1. Vide 8 Barb. & Ald. 283; 4 Maule & Selw. 306; 1 Holt's N. P. 209; 1 Salk. 387; S. C. Carth. 417; 1 Bell's Com. 469 Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.; Yelv. 67, a; Smith's Leading Cases, 47; 8 Co. 32.
GUIDON DE LA MER, (LE). The name of a treatise on maritime law, written in Rouen, then Normandy, in 1671, as is supposed. it was received on the continent of Europealmost as equal in authority to one of the ancient codes of maritime law. The author of this work is unknown. This tract or treatise is contained in the Collection de Lois Maritimes," by J. M. Pardessus. vol. 2, p. 371, et seq.
GUILD. A fraternity or company. Guild hall, the place of meeting of guilds. Beame's, Glanville, 108 (n).
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